Micro-ORMs for .NET Compared – Part 1

Recently, I have been made aware of a lightweight alternative to full-blown ORMs like NHibernate and Entity Framework.  They’re called micro-ORMs, and I decided to test-drive a few of the more popular ones to see how they compare.

Each of the tools listed here are small and contained within a single file (hence the “micro” part of the name).  If you’re adventurous, it’s worth having a look at the code since they use some interesting and powerful techniques to implement their mapping, such as Reflection.Emit, C# 4 dynamic features, and T4 templates.

The Software


Website: http://code.google.com/p/dapper-dot-net/
GitHub: https://github.com/SamSaffron/dapper-dot-net
NuGet: http://nuget.org/packages/Dapper

Databases supported: Any database with an ADO.NET provider
Size: 2345 lines of code


Dapper was written by Sam Saffron and Marc Gravell and is used by the popular programmer site Stack Overflow.  It’s designed with an emphasis on performance, and even uses Reflection.Emit to generate code on-the-fly internally.  The Dapper website has metrics to show its performance relative to other ORMs.

Among Dapper’s features are list support, buffered and unbuffered readers, multi mapping, and multiple result sets.


In Visual Studio, use Manage NuGet Packages, search for “Dapper”, and click Install.  Couldn’t be easier.


Here we select all rows from a Products table and return a collection of Product objects:

class Product
    public int ProductId { get; set; }
    public string ProductName { get; set; }

class Program
    private static void Main(string[] args)
        using (var conn = new SqlConnection("Data Source=.\\SQLEXPRESS;
            Initial Catalog=Northwind;Integrated Security=SSPI;"))
            var products = conn.Query<Product>("SELECT * FROM Products");

As you can see from the example, Dapper expects an open connection, so you have to set that up yourself.  It’s also picky about data types when mapping to a strongly typed list.  For example, if you try to map a 16-bit database column to a 32-bit int property you’ll get a column parsing error.  Mapping is case-insensitive, and you can map to objects that have missing or extra properties compared with the columns you are mapping from.

Dapper can output a collection of dynamic objects if you use Query() instead of Query<T>():

    var shippers = conn.Query("SELECT * FROM Shippers");

This saves you the tedium of defining objects just for mapping.

Dapper supports parameterized queries where the parameters are passed in as anonymous classes:

    var customers =
        conn.Query("SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE Country = @Country
            AND ContactTitle = @ContactTitle",
        new { Country = "Canada", ContactTitle = "Marketing Assistant" });

The multi mapping feature is handy and lets you map one row to multiple objects:

class Order
    public int OrderId { get; set; }
    public string CustomerId { get; set; }
    public Customer Customer { get; set; }
    public DateTime OrderDate { get; set; }

class Customer
    public string CustomerId { get; set; }
    public string City { get; set; }


var sql =
        Orders o
        INNER JOIN Customers c
            ON c.CustomerID = o.CustomerID
        c.ContactName = 'Bernardo Batista'";

var orders = conn.Query<order, customer,="" order="">(sql,
    (order, customer) => { order.Customer = customer; return order; },
    splitOn: "CustomerID");

var firstOrder = orders.First();

Console.WriteLine("Order date: {0}", firstOrder.OrderDate.ToShortDateString());

Console.WriteLine("Customer city: {0}", firstOrder.Customer.City);

Here, the Customer property of the Order class does not correspond to a database column.  Instead, it will be populated with customer data that was joined to the order in the query.

Make sure to join tables in the right order or you may not get back the results you expect.

First Impressions

Dapper is slightly larger than some other micro-ORMs, but its focus on raw performance means that it excels in that area.  It is flexible and works with POCOs or dynamic objects, and its use on the Stack Overflow website suggests that it is stable and well-tested.

Continue to Part 2…


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